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                                           :: About Lahore ::

Lahore is a city of great dimensions. It is unique in many respects.

In Modern period now it is declared? ?Lahore is indeed the Heart of Pakistan? with it?s ever green gaiety. It?s true and by the blessing of Allah if you go to any corner of the city you will find shops open for Juices, milk, milk items, fruits, paan, cigarettes, fish, tikka, paratha, naan and for many daisy items or foods.There is always a hustle and bustle of devotees at the shrines paying their love to the saintly men who are extremely successful in bringing the non Muslim to the fold of Islam. You may always found some political or social activity in some part of great city, which proves it?s heart beat. Any movement in country takes sprint from this marvelous city. People visiting this tremendous city always receive a warm welcome from it?s natives, who are very truly called ?Zinda Dalan-e-Lahore?.

Bearing many fascinating historical monuments, marvelous places, Lively people, delicious and spicy typical foods, colorful culture and festivals, arts and crafts, green pleasant lawns and gardens, political and social activities, it?s true to believe in Punjabi statement ?Jinhay Lhore nahin waikhiya oh Jamiya hey nahin? (The person who didn't visit Lahore he is not born?)Name And Foundation 

In the Deshwa Bhaga, previously mentioned, Lahore is called Lavpor, which at once points to its origin from Lav, the son of Rama, while in the ancient annals of Rajputana the name given is Loh Kot, meaning ?the fort of Loh,? which, again, has reference to its mythical founder, Rama?s son. Turning to the Mahomedan period, the best authorities on the early Mahomedan conquests of India, are the historians of Scindh, for it was in that quarter that the first storm of those conquests under the Khalifat burst. Fatuhul Baldun, believed to be one of the earliest Arabic Chronicles, which gives an account of the first conquests of the Arabs in Syria, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Persia, Armenia, Transoxiana, Africa, Spain and Scindh, calls Lahore by the name of A?lahwur. The book, which is the work of Ahmad bin Yahya, surnamed Al-Biladuri, who lived at the Court of Baghdad towards the middle of ninth century of the Christian era, in the Khalifat of Al-m?tamid-Billah, is frequently cited by Ibn-I-Haukal, Almasudi and other ancient Arabic geographers. In times as early as the Khalifut of Umar, an expedition was sent under Hakam, son of Abul?asi, of the tribe of Sakif, to Baruz (Broach) and Debal. During the reign of Usman, Hakim, son of Jahalla-al?abdi, was sent to the confines of Hind ?in order to acquire knowledge and bring back information.? In the beginning of the year 39 A.H. (659 A.D.), during the Khalifat of Ali, son of Abu Talib, Haras, son of Marral ?Abdi, proceeded. With the sanction of the Khalif, to the same frontier, as a volunteer. He reached Kekan in Scindh, was victorious and made captive, but was subsequently slain.In the year 44 A.H. (664 A.D.), and in the days of the Khalif Mu?awiya,? continues our author, ?Mohallab, son of the Abu Safra, made war upon the same frontier, and advanced as far as Banna (Bannu) and Alahwar (Lahore) which lie between Multan and Cabul. The enemy opposed him and killed him and his followers.The great traveller Al-Idrisi, of Morocco, in his work the Nuzhatulmushtak-fi-Iftikharul Afak, writing in the ninth century, calls it Lohawar. The termination ?Awar is a corruption of the Sanscrit word Awarna, meaning fort, and is affixed to many Indian towns, such as Sanawar, Bijawar, Peshawar. Lobawar would, thus, simply mean ?fort of Loh,? and the name would establish its identity with the ?Loh Kot? of the Hindu Puranas.Abu Rehan Al-Biruni, in his celebrated work, the Kanun, speaking from his personal knowledge of the country at the time of Mahmud?s invasion, towards the close of the tenth century, mentions, in his description of the Himalayan mountains, that ?they can be seen from Tacas (Taxila?) and Lahawar (Lahore).? M. Reinaud, in his Fragments, and Elliot, read it as Lauhaour, Lohaovar, Loharu and Lahor. Amir Khusrow, of Delhi, writing in the latter part of the thirteenth century, calls it Lahanur in his well-known work the Kiranus-sa?den. He says:- ?From the confines of Samania to Lahanur, There is no walled (city) but Kasur.?Mr. Thornton suggests that Lahanur is a corruption of Luhanagar, nur being the Dakhani form of nagar, as appears from the names of other towns, such as Kalanore, Kananore, ...etc.Rashid-ud-Din, in his Jamiut Tawarikh, completed in A.H. 710, or A.D. 1310, calls it Lahur, ?than which,? he says, ?there is no stronger fort.?Al Biruni also mentions Lahore as a Province, the capital of which was ?Mandhukur? on the east of the river Irawa (Ravi). Baihanki calls it ?Mandkakur?.  Lahore is also called by the Mahomedan historians Lohar, Loher and Rahwar, the origin of the last name being explained by the fact of its situation on the great imperial roads to Cabul, Kashmir and Agra.

In whatever form it may have been written by the early Mahomedan writers, it is manifest from the above summary that the name, Lahore, has clear reference to its founder, and that founder was, in all probability, Loh, the son of Rama.

Date of Foundation

The early history of Lahore is involved in so much obscurity that it is impossible to discover the exact date of its foundation. Of its Rajput Hindu origin there can be little doubt. From the writings of eminent Arabic geographers and the early Mahomedan historians of Scindh, a resume of which has been given above, it may, moreover, be fairly concluded that Lahore was a town of some importance during the early days of the Khalifat, or about the middle of the seventh century of the Christian era.

Colonel Tod in his Annals of Rajistan, assigns the middle of the second century as the date of the migration of Prince Kenekson from Lahore. The learned author, who, from the earliest period of his official connection with Rajistan, applied himself diligently to collecting and imploring its oldest historical records, bases his information on the sacred genealogy from the Puranas, the Mahabharat, the poems of Chand, the voluminous historical records of Jesselmir, Marwar and Mewar, the genealogical rolls of antiquity, obtained from the tribal bards and priests, biographical anecdotes furnished by men of intellect in the country, and inscriptions calculated to reconcile dates :- ?In short,? writes the author, ?every corroborating circumstance was treasured up which could be obtained by incessant research during sixteen years.? From at least ten genealogical lists, derived from the most opposite sources, Colonel Tod finds Kanekson to be the founder of the Mewar dynasty, and assigns his emigration from Loh Kot (Lahore) to Dwarica in Samvat 201, or A.D. 145. The country of Ayuddhia (Oudh), of which Rama was the monarch, is, in the ancient chronicles of the Hindus, called Khushala, from the mother of Rama whose name was Khushalia. The first royal emigrant from Lahore is styled in the archives of the Rana of Mewar, Khushala putra, ?son of Khushala.? From Loh, the son of Rama, the Ranas of Mewar claim their descent. He built Lahore, the ancient Loh Kot, and ?his branch, from which the kings of Mewar are descended, resided there until Kanekson emigrated to Dwarica.? Of the period of this king?s migration from Lahore there can, therefore, be no doubt.The conclusions drawn by Colonel Tod, on the authority of the ancient scriptures of the Hindus, receive further corroboration from the classical writers of the East. It was about the time referred to by Colonel Tod as the probable period of Prince Kenekson?s migration from Lahore, namely, the middle of the second century that Claudius Ptolemeus, surnamed Ptolemy, the celebrated astronomer and geographer, wrote his geography, which was used as a text-book by succeeding ages. He flourished in Alexandria in 139 A.D ; and there is evidence of his having been alive in 161 A.D. In his geography he mentions a city called Labokla, situated on the route between the Indus and Palibothra, or Pataliputra (Patna), in a tract of country called Kasperia (Kashmir), described as extending along the rivers Bidastes (Jhelam), Sandabal or Chandra Bhaga (Chenab), and Adris (Ravi). This place, from its name and locality, Wilford would identify with Lahore. With this inference General Cunningham agrees, identifying Lahore with the Labokla of Ptolemy, and taking the first two syllables, Labo, to represent the name of Lava (or Lov), the son of Rama. The identification was, according to the same authority, first made in Kiepert?s Map of India according to Ptolemy, which accompanied Lassen?s ?Indische Alterthums Kunde.?The traveller, Alexander Burnes, noticing the traditions of Cabul in his travels writes of the foundation of Lahore :-? In Cabul itself there are not exactly traditions of Alexander, but both Heart and Lahore are said to have been founded by the slaves of that conqueror, whom they call a prophet. Their names were Heri (the old name of Heart) and Lahore. Candahar is said to be an older city than either of these.?But the entire absence of the name of Lahore, or any city with a name approaching it, which may be fairly identified with it, in the writings of the historians of Alexander, coupled with the fact that no coins of Indo-Bactrian or Indo-Scythic dynasties have been discovered at lahore or in its neighbourhood, has led scholars to conclude that the city, if it existed at the time of Greek invasion, was of no importance up to, at least, the first century after Christ.Bernier, who visited Lahore in 1664 A.D., suggests its identification with the ancient Bucephals Burnes would identify Lahore with Sanghala, mentioned by Arrian and Curtius, the classical writers, as the stronghold of the Kathaean or Khatri tribe. This is the Sanghala of Alexander, mentioned also by Diadorus, and recognized as the Sakala of the Brahmans and the Sagal of the Budhists. But its position, 65 miles from the bank of the Hydraotes (Ravi), precludes the identity of its situation with that suggested by the enterprising traveller. Yet both Curtius and Arrian agree in stating that Alexander crossed the Hydraotes (Ravi) before advancing against Sanghala to punish the insurgent Kathaeans, described as a ?free Indian nation.? There can, therefore, be no doubt that the conqueror crossed the Ravi in the immediate neighbourhood of Lahore, which ?was most probably the position of his camp when he heard of the recusancy of the Kathaean.? But it must have been a place of no importance at the time of the Macedonian invasion, or it would have, doubtless, been mentioned by the Greek writers.When the celebrated Chinese pilgrim, Hwen Thsang, visited the Panjab in 630 A.D., he found the walls of Sanghala completely ruined, but their foundations still remained ; and-in the midst of the ruins he found a small portion of the old city, still inhabited by Budhist monks, who studied the esoteric doctrines of Budha. According to the Chinese traveller, Taki, or Asarur (believed by General Cunningham to be the Pimparama of Alexander), about two miles to the south of the high road between Lahore and Pindi Bhatian (or 45 miles from the former and 24 from the latter), was the capital of the Panjab in A.D. 633.

Now, the pilgrim, in his itinerary, makes no mention of Lahore, or any city answering its name or description, though he was in Chinapatti (the modern Patti in Kasur) for 14 months, and Jalandhra (the Kulindrine of Ptolemy) for four months, and had travelled the whole country from Kashmir to Pragia, Ujjen and Kannoj. He notes that he halted for a whole month (November 633 A.D.) at a large town on the eastern fronteir of Taki. General Cunningham would identify this large town with Kasur, as the kingdom extended to the Bias river on the east, and the great city should be looked for on the line of the Bias, and not on the Ravi.

From the mention, however, of the name of Lahore in the geography of Ptolemy before mentioned, Mr. Thornton approximately fixes the date of its foundation ?at the end of the first or the beginning of the second century of the Christian era.? If we review history, the city was founded, deserted and re-founded several times during the course of ages before it attained the state of historic continuity under the Muslims.

The manner in which the name has passed through various layers of history shows that there is something in the name, which could withstand the vicissitudes of changing times; and could with adaptation take over new forms to satisfy the urges and aspirations of the people of various ages. The lure and luster that attaches to the name of Lahore is not the work of one man; it is a heritage that has been enriched by the contributions of various people at different stages of history. Here now we?re going to review about the latest situation of this dynasties city. Because now it?s called heart of Pakistan.Pakistan has five provinces

1) Punjab,

2) Serhad or (NWFP --- North West Frontier Province),

3) Sind,

4) Balochistan and

5) Azad Jamu and Kashmir (Kashmir?s major part is occupied by India). 

 

The city Lahore is capital of Punjab Province. It occupies a centralposition, and it?s generally called Heart of Pakistan. The Latitude of Lahore is 31 ? 34 ?5? North And Longitude is situated 74 ? 21? East. The city is situated on the flat alluvial plain at an average altitude of 706 feet above sea level. Parts of city are situated at a slightly higher level on mounds of the debris of former cities. It?s built in form of parallelogram, the area with in the walls, exclusive of the citadel, being about 461 acres. It stands on the alluvial plain traversed by the river Ravi. The city is slightly elevated above the plain, and has a high ridge within it, running east and west on its northern side. The whole of this elevated ground is composed of the accumulated debris of many centuries. The ricer, which makes a very circuitous bend from the East, passes in a semi-circle to the north of Lahore.At on time it flowed by the city walls; but, its encroachments have caused alarm in 1662, the Emperor Aurangzeb had a massive embankment of bricks and mortar constructed along its bank for a distance of about four miles, which saved the city from destruction. Portions of this huge work, called Band-I-Alamgiri, are still to be seen on the north east of the citadel, and village of Bhogoi ? Wall. The river Ravi soon after abandoned its old channel, and has never since returned to it, though an arm of the main stream at present flows at a short distance from the fort.  The Ravi the smallest of the five rivers which give the Panjab its present designation, was known in the hindu Shastras as the the Iravati. Entering the district by the village Ichogil, it runs through its entire breadth, and leaves it on the borders of the Montgomery district. The gr5eat Bari Doab Canal is an offshoot of this river, and it throws out several other branches, which however, subsequently rejoin the main stream. The river is not navigable on account of the tortuous nature of its current, but grain finds its way down the river from Lahore to Rori Bhakkar, and deodar wood is floated down in rafts from chamba hills.

Lahore is city of gardens and has the reputation of being the ?Green City?. It?s Climate is very healthy and salubrious. Except for some days in the summer Lahore is a pleasant place to live. Winter and places here from October to March beginning, then spring comes for a short period up to maximum April end. After that summer period set ins which go at peak in June and July although these two months are also rainy. Summer season lasts in September in form of fall season, which tends to recycle --- means again winter. In September pinch of summer over and the nights become cool.Hundred years ago the city was confined to the walled city, an area of square mile only. With passage of time many far away towns become part of it, like Ichara, Saman abad, Baghban pura, Kumhiyaar pura, dharma pura, kotha pind, Sanda, Shahdera??etc.But in last decade these boundries are more expended. In East it is expended up to Jallo border ? 28 km, in north it is limiting about Qasoor area 38 km from center, while west side is going up to Rai wind about 42 km. The boundaries of southern area is mixing with Imamia colony which is situated at 22 km from the secretariat. Lets take an update over view of the city. Now it?s divided into 148 union councils. Actually Lahore is not grown under any specific plan. The city now comprises following regions:- River Ravi, the lower Bari Doab Canal, the railway lines and the arterial riads are important 

Shahdera Region 

Entire area across river Ravi. Shahdare town, Barkat town, Rechna town, Ascolony, Begum Kot, Kot Abdul Malik, Bhutto colony, Christian colony, Farooq nagar, Ilm Din colony, Ravi town, Rasul Nagar, Raja colony, Malakpura, Jia Musa, Islamia Colony, Peoples colony etc.ern Region :-

The northern region is the entire area to the north of the G.T. road. It includes: Qila Lachmen Singh, Badami Bagh, Faruq Gunj, Misri Shah, Whad Bagh, Wasan Pura, Faizbagh, Kachupura, Sultan Pura, Tezab Ahata, Khui Miran, Kot Khawaja Saeed, Begum Pura, Singh Pura, Boghiwal, Baghbanpura, Barkatpura, Daroghewala, Mahmud Buti, Shadipura, Moman Pura, Amar Town, Awan pura, Nishter town, ?etc. Mughal Pura region :- The Mughal Pura region is engidled by the G.T. road, the railway line, and the lower bari canal. This includes Mughal pura, Ganj, Mujahid Abad (Ramgarh), Miskin Pura, Nabi pura, Fateh garh, Salamat pura, Harbanspura, Habibia colony, Ghazi Abad (Kumaar Pura), Muslimabad. ..etc.

 Contaonment Region

The contaonment region is bounded by lower Bari Doab canal in the north and the Karachi railway line is in the west. It includes cantonement, Defense Housing Society, Walton and Faisal town.   

 Kotlakhpat Region 

The Kotlakhpat area is region is the area across the railway line. It Includes railway line, Amarsidhu, Township, Green Town, Bagrian, Gulistan Colony, Laqatabad ..etc.

 Model Town Region

The Model Town Region is bounded by Ferozepur road, in the east and the lower Bari Doab Canal in the west. It comprises Model Town, Davisabad, Garden Town, Sirdar Shaukat Hayat Colony etc.

 Gulberg Region 

The Gulberg region is included in the triangle formed by the railway line, Ferozpur Road, and the Lower Bari Doab Canal. It includes Gulberg Colony, Guru Mangat and Mian Mir.

 Samanabad Region 

The Samanabad Region is comprised in the area bounded by the Lower Bari Doab canal. Ferozepur road, Bahawalpur road and Multan Road. It also includes Ichhra, Muslim town, Wahdet colony, Shahid colony, Rehman colony, Najaf colonuy, Clifton colony, Christian town, Samanabad, Pakki Thatti, Nawakot.

 Multan Road Region 

The Multan Road Region includes Badarpura, Meharpura, Chiragh colony, Hanjarwal, Ittehad colony, Sodiwal, Thokar, Yasrab colony, Raajgarh, Ram nagar, Sandakalaan, Sanda Khourd, Islampura (Krishannagar), Sunnat nagar (Sant nagar) Sham Nagar, Bilal Ganj, Mohini road, Bagh Munshi Ladha, Kasurpura, Ravi road.

 Civil Line region 

The Civil Line region is bounded by the southern side of the circular road, the railway line, the Bari Doab canal, the Feroze pur road, the Bahawal pur road and the lower Mall. It includes Anarkali, Nila Gimbad, Dhobi Mandi, Gawal Mandi, Qila Gujar Singh, Mohammad Nagar, Naulakha, Garhi Shahu, Dharum-pur, Mozang, Bhondpura, Shadman colony ?etc.

                                                                                          

                      

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